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How are pearls formed?

To form a pearl a grain of sand is needed. When it gets inside the shell of bivalve marine and freshwater molluscs (Margaritifera margaritifera), their organisms cover this foreign body with layers of mother-of-pearl — water-insoluble calcium salts of carbonic acid. It is highly valued because of its beauty and shine. On pearl farms, grains of sand are implanted in shells of pearl mussels.

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